The Yakovlev Yak-38 (Russian: Як-38, NATO reporting name: Forger) was Soviet Naval Aviation's first and only operational VTOL strike fighter aircraft, in addition to being its first operational carrier-based fixed-wing aircraft. It was developed specifically for and served exclusively on the Kiev class aircraft carriers.
The prototype was finished on 14 April 1970. Though outwardly similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Harrier, it followed a completely different configuration. Together with a vectorable thrust engine in the rear used during flight, two smaller, and less powerful, engines were housed in the front portion of the fuselage and used purely for take-off and landing.
Sea trials aboard the aircraft carrier ("aviation cruiser") Kiev were observed in 1975. Following the conclusion of acceptance trials for the initial models in August 1976, the aircraft was formally accepted in October, under the new designation Yak-38.
A total of 231 Yak-38 aircraft were produced, including 38 two-seat trainers (Yak-38U).
Source: Wikipedia, "Yakovlev Yak-38", available under the CC-BY-SA License.